Charging an electric vehicle (EV) usually takes longer and needs a little planning, but soon enough, it becomes second nature.
Public charging networks grow every day, and the battery range of cars is improving. However, many new EV owners may get confused when they need to charge for the first time.
Below, we tell you all you need to know about how to charge an electric car, including:
Charging your EV is like charging your phone - some drivers charge their EVs overnight or while at work, while others stop off during journeys to take advantage of public charge points.
Charging the battery is simple:
Charging at home is the most convenient and cost-effective way to recharge an EV.
Government grants are available for installing home EV chargepoints (also known as wall boxes), which are typically rated at 3kW or 7kW.
You can plug electric cars into a standard three-pin plug at home. However, it takes longer to charge.
There are two types of home electricity tariffs:
Home EV charging isn’t possible for many owners because they don’t have off-street parking.
They have no option but to use on-street residential EV charging or public chargers at service stations and supermarkets.
On the plus side, these chargers tend to be faster than domestic connections.
Many organisations have installed charging stations for staff, and it can be convenient during work.
As company cars switch to electric, it’s becoming more important for businesses to offer EV charge points.
Businesses, charities and local authorities can take advantage of the Workplace Charging Scheme, which incentivises reducing carbon emissions and helps with the upfront installation costs.
Public charging points are common now, and you can find a public charge point here.
At the end of December 2022, there were 37,261 EV charging points across the UK, across 22,049 charging locations, according to the Zap-Map database.
That’s a 31% increase in charging devices since December 2021. December 2022 saw an increase of 923 new EV charging devices.
Chargers pull electric current from the grid and deliver it to an EV via a connector or plug.
The EV then stores that electricity in a battery pack to power its electric motor.
Electric cars use two kinds of fuel: alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC).
The power that comes from the grid is always AC, so EVs are fitted with a converter (or onboard charger), which converts AC to DC. It then feeds it into the battery, which is how ‘slow’ home charging works.
Faster public chargers use DC, which bypasses the converter altogether so the charge can go directly into the battery. This speeds up the charging process, which is why it's called fast, rapid or ultra-rapid charging.
The amount you pay to charge your EV depends on where you charge it and the price of electricity. Broadly, the faster the charger, the more it will cost to charge your EV.
For instance, pay-as-you-go rates are as high as 79p per kilowatt hour (kWh). A typical home tariff is 34p/ kWh.
The amount you pay varies between providers, and it relies on the wholesale price of electricity.
Under the Government’s Energy Price Guarantee, the average dual fuel unit price for domestic electricity on standard variable tariffs with direct debit has a 34p per kWh limit.
For an electric car, this equates to an average cost of about 11p per mile.
Smaller electric city cars might cost as little as 9.1p per mile to run, while larger SUVs could cost as much as 14.2p per mile, according to research by Which?.
However, drivers using rapid and ultra-paid chargers (which can cost twice the price per kilowatt hour) pay around 20p per mile.
For comparison, it costs between 16-22p per mile to run a petrol or diesel vehicle, depending on the engine size.
In other words, if you can't charge at home and you rely on rapid public chargers, the cost saving of running an EV over a petrol or diesel car is negligible.
Some chargepoints accept contactless credit or debit card payments, plus ApplePay, Google Pay and Android Pay.
There are various public chargepoint networks in the UK, including Pod Point, Ionity, BP Pulse, Gridserve, Osprey and ChargePlace Scotland.
Access to charging is usually through a radio frequency identification (RFID) card or a smartphone app.
Some providers also have roaming agreements, meaning you can access a larger charger network.
The length of time it takes to charge your EV comes down to five factors:
You can measure the size and power of a battery in kilowatt-hours, or kWh. The larger the number, the bigger the battery, the longer it’ll take to recharge.
Chargers deliver electricity in kilowatts (kW), and they range from 3kW to 350kW. Again, the higher the number, the quicker the charging rate.
EVs with a claimed range of 150 - 200 miles tend to have batteries around the 50kWh mark, while cars with longer ranges (300 miles) are 77.4kWh and above.
Unless you're charging overnight at home, it's recommended to only fast charge to 80% because charging rates slow down dramatically past the 80% mark, plus the long-term health of the battery pack is improved when kept below 100%.
You can learn more about the little ins and outs of EVs in our electric car mythbuster.
Three-pin plug – a three-pin charger is useful if you arrive somewhere and there’s no dedicated charger, such as a friend’s house or holiday home. Manufacturers don't recommend it for daily usage.
Type 1 – these have a five-pin design with a low AC output of between 3.7kW and 7.4kW.
Type 2 – these have a seven-pin design and can reach speeds of up to 43kW at public charge stations. As the most popular charger, your EV will likely have this design.
CCS – the Combined Charging System (CCS) is a rapid and ultra-rapid DC charging connector capable of charging speeds up to 350kW. It’s only available at public charging stations and has nine pins in two sections. The upper AC section has seven pins - the lower has two additional pins, enabling a DC connection for faster charging speeds.
CHAdeMO – Toyota, Nissan and Mistubishi established this Japanese DC charger. Popular models that use CHAdeMO include the Mistubishi Outlander PHEV and Nissan Leaf. It has a DC power rating of 50kW.
Our electric car insurance protects your charging points and chargers, safeguarding them against accidental damage, fire and theft.
I'm an experienced journalist, digital editor and copywriter, now specialising in motoring. I’m editor of Automotive Blog and have worked across the media in newspapers, magazines, TV, teletext, radio and online for household names including the BBC, GMTV, ITV and MSN. I’ve produced digital content in the financial sector for Lloyds Bank, Nationwide and the Money Advice Service. I'm married with two children and live near Bath in Somerset.